12/31/2015

ENTER ... Fudo Myo-O

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.. .. .. .. Welcome to the Fudo Myo-O Encyclopedia
.. .. .. .. and the Japanese Deities!

お不動さま、不動明王にようこそ! 


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Carved by 西村公朝 Nishimura Kocho in 1975
in a keya tree (Torreya nucifera)


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Fudō Myō-ō 不動明王 Fudo Myo-O
- Acala Vidyârâja - Vidyaraja

Who is he? - Introduction


Fudoo Myoo-Oo / Acala Vidyârâja 不動明王
Fudoo Myoo-Oo - Japanese   

19 Characteristic Signs of Fudo Myo-O . 不動十九観

Three Most Famous Fudo . 三大不動尊 Sandai Fudo Son

Fudo Myo-o. Explanation in German. auf Deutsch


CLICK for more photos CLICK for many more photos CLICK for english information


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. - Latest Updates - .

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- - - - - other names

Acalanaatha, Acalanatha, Ācalanātha, Acala-Natha

Aryacalanatha, Āryācalanātha 阿奢羅曩 "immovable Lord"

Fudoo Son, Mudoo Son 不動尊 - 無動尊 Fudo Son, Mudo Son

Fudoo Shisha 不動使者 "Messenger Fudo"
in the sutra 不空羂索神変真言経
- - - - - (messenger of Dainichi Nyorai)
Mudoo Shisha 無動使者

Candacala, Candamaharoshana, Candaroshana, Mahakandaroshana
- as an emanation of Buddha Akshobhya (Tibetan connection)

jigo kongoo - Jigo Kongo, "diamond guardian of compassion"

joojuu kongoo. Jōjū Kongō 常住金剛 joju kongo
"eternally abiding diamond",“eternal and immutable diamond”

Trailokyavijaya

Vajrabhishana, Vajrabisana


- - - - - Sometimes he is even called
不動明はデビルマン Devil man

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There are so many names of temples, people and special Fudo statues, they need a list of their own.

. - ABC LIST - Introduction - .

- AAA - / - BBB - / - CCC - / - DDD - / - EEE -

- FFF - / - GGG - / - HHH - / - I I I - / - JJJ -

- KK KK - / - LLL - / - MMM - / - NNN - / - OOO -

- PPP - / - QQQ - / - RRR - / - SSS - / - TTT -

- UUU - / - VVV - / - WWW -

- XXX - / - YYY - / - ZZZ -



- - - - - as of June 2014
. Contents from A to P .

. Contents from Q to Z .



This is a growing list, please come back!
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My Fudo Myo-O Photoalbum
. . . FLICKR albums . . .

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納め不動、成田山 Osame-Fudo
CLICK for more photos
The Last Fudo Fire Ritual of the Year, Narita-san






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..... Japanese Deities


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12/30/2015

Japanese Deities

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Japanese Buddhas and Deities


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.................. Introducing Buddha Statues


History of Buddha Statues in Japan 仏像の歴史



.. .. .. .. .. .. .. The Nyorai Group 如来


Amida Buddha 阿弥陀如来

Dainichi Nyorai 大日如来 The Great Sun, Center of the Universe

O-Take Nyorai お竹如来

Shaka Nyorai 釈迦如来  Gautama Buddha

Yakushi Nyorai 薬師如来、Buddha of Medicine


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.. .. .. .. .. .. .. The Bosatsu Group 菩薩

. Bosatsu 菩薩  Bodhisattva Group .


Daigen Shuri Bosatsu 招宝七郎大権修理菩薩
monastery-protecting spirit (gogaranjin 護伽藍神)
and temple Anryu-Ji 安竜寺


Fugen Bosatsu 普賢菩薩(ふげんぼさつ) (Samantabhadra)
and the white Elephant


Hoki Bosatsu, Hooki Bosatsu 法起菩薩 ... "Hoodoo Sennin" 法道仙人, Temple Bodaiji 菩提寺, Saint Tokudo 徳道上人



... ... ... Jizo Bosatsu 地蔵菩薩
- with more details -

Ajimi Jizo 嘗試地蔵 and Kobo DaishiKoya san

Jizo as Jigoku Bosatsu 地獄菩薩, Namu Jigoku Daibosatsu
南無地獄大菩薩

Asekaki Jizoo, the Sweating Jizo 汗かき地蔵

Gote Jizoo ごて地蔵 Gote Jizo , Osaka, Kita-Ku
曽根崎警察署の裏

Hadaka Jizoo Naked Jizo 裸地蔵

Hooroku Jizoo ほうろく地蔵 with an earthen pot on his head
(Horoku Jizo 焙烙地蔵)

Miso Jizoo 広島のみそ地蔵

O-Bake Jizoo 化け地蔵 the monstrous Jizo statues Nikko

Omokaru Jizoo, Heavy or Light Jizo おもかる地蔵、重軽地蔵

Shinpei-Ji 心平寺 地蔵  Kencho-Ji, Kamakura

Shioname Jizo 塩嘗地蔵 Salt-tasting Jizo in Kamakura

Yonaki Jizo and babies crying at night 夜泣き地蔵



... ... ... Kannon Bosatsu 観音菩薩

Batoo Kannon, Horseheaded Kannon 馬頭観音

Hakodate 33 Kannon Pilgrimage 西国移土三十三観音, 函館市湯川寺

Hatakiri Kannon はたきり観音さん, Shikoku Henro 10

Jundei Kannon, Juntei Kannon 准胝 観音 Mother of all Buddhas
准胝仏母(じゅんていぶっぽ)

Maria Kannon マリア観音 Christians in Nagasaki

Nyoirin Kannon, Wishfulfilling Kannon如意輪観音
..... Seiryuu Gongen, Dragon Deity Zennyo 清瀧権現

O-Shichi Kannon お七観音 at temple Tanjo-Ji in Okayama 誕生寺 (Tanjooji)

Senju Kannon, with 1000 Arms and Juuichimen Kannon with 11 heads 千手観音, 十一面観音

Shichimen Kannon 七面観音 Nichiren and Mount Minobu
Shichimen Daibosatsu 七面大菩薩

Usuzumi Kannon, Light Charcoal Cherry Tree Kannon 薄墨観音




Kokuuzoo Bosatsu 虚空蔵菩薩 Kokuzo Bosatsu
Akashagarbha Bodhisattva.
Bodhisattva of Wisdom and Memory



Maso Bosatsu, Senrigan and Junpuji 媽祖菩薩, 千里眼, 順風耳

Memyo Bosatsu 馬鳴菩薩. Ashvagosha

Miroku Bosatsu 弥勒菩薩 Maitreya

Monju Bosatsu 文殊菩薩 Manjushri

Myoken Bosatsu (Myooken Bosatsu) 妙見菩薩
and Star Shrines in Japan, Hoshi Jinja 星神社


Seishi Bosatsu 勢至菩薩 Mahasthamaprapta


Sengen Daibosatsu 浅間大菩薩 Deity of Mount Fuji



Daibosatsu is a term of Buddhist origin, and refers to a "great kami that has awakened to the Way of the Bodhisattva."


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.. .. .. .. .. .. .. The Myo-O Group 明王の部

Aizen Myo-O  愛染明王

Daigensui 大元帥明王 Taigen (Atavaka)

Daiitoku Myo-O 大威徳明王 Yamaantaka


. . . . Fudo Myo-O ... see above


Goosanze Myo-O 降三世明王 Gosanze Trilokavijaya


Kujaku Myo-O 孔雀明王 The Pheasant Wisdom King 

Ususama Myo-O 烏瑟沙摩明王
Ucchusma, deity of the toilet

Zao Gongen 蔵王権現


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.. .. .. .. .. .. .. The Ten Group, Tenbu 天部 Deva, Devas

Many of them are devas are deities coming from India and some have shrines with a torii 鳥居entrance gate dedicated to them. The division between Shinto and Buddhism is difficult here, ecpecially since many sanctuaries were erected before the separation of the two religions in Japan in the Meiji period.


Ashura, Asura (あしゅら) 阿修羅


Benzaiten 弁財天, Benten 弁天 Benzai-Ten
..... Benten and the Gods of Water


Bishamonten、Tamonten 多聞天 (Vaishravana) 毘沙門天、毘沙門の使ひ

Bishukatsuma 毘首羯磨 (Vishvakarman ヴィシュヴァカルマン)
自在天王・工巧天・巧妙天

Daikoku Ten 大黒天 Daikoku sama

Dairokuten Ma-O ... 第六天魔王, 大六天 Take Jizaiten 他化自在天

Dakiniten, Dakini Ten (Vajra Daakini) 荼枳尼天

Datsueba 奪衣婆 or 脱衣婆 the Old Hag of Hell

Ebisu ... 夷 恵比寿 恵比須 えびす、エビス God of Good Luck

Enma Ten, Enma Oo (Emma): The King of Hell閻魔天、閻魔王
..... The Ten Kings of Hell, Juu Oo 十王


Gigeiten 伎芸天 Daijizai Tennyo 大自在天女 and
Daijizai Ten 大自在天 (Shiva)

Gohoojin 護法神 Protectors of the Buddhist law


Hotei 布袋 Pu-Tai

Idaten 韋駄天 (Skanda)

Juuni Shinshoo 十二神将 Twelve Heavenly Generals,
12 Warrior Generals

Kankiten (Ganesh) Elephant-headed deity

Kichijoten 吉祥天 Kichijooten (Lakshmi, Shri Mahadevi)

Kishibojin 鬼子母神, Kishimojin, Kangimo, Kariteimo 訶梨帝母

Madarajin, Matarajin, Matara Shin 摩多羅神 Mathara, Mahakala

Mao son 護法魔王尊 Gohoo Maoo Son
and the three sonten 尊天 of Kurama mountain temple

Marishiten 摩利支天 Marishi Ten

Nio, Deva Kings 仁王 (Nioo, Niou)


. Ototen 乙天 Bishamonten .


Shakudaijin 石大神 - near Ogisu, Suzuka-gun, Kyoto
- reference -


Shomen Kongo 青面金剛 Shoomen Kongoo


Taishakuten, Taishaku Ten 帝釈天
Indra, Sakra Deva, Shakra Devanam Indra
and the Koshin Cult (kooshin 庚申, ka no e saru)


The Gods of the four elements 風水天地の神様
水神 Suijin, 風神 Fuujin, 地神 Chijin, 火神 Kajin


Seven Gods of Good Luck 七福神 Shichifukujin 


. Wakaten 若天 Fudo Myo-O .

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Saints and holy figures


Binzuru 賓頭盧 (Pinzuru)

. MORE Fellow Pilgrims .


. Memorial Days of Poets .


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Hibutsu ... 秘仏 ... Secret and hidden Buddha statues

Temples and Shrines of Japan



Busshi 仏師 ... Buddhist Sculptors Gallery




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.. .. .. .. .. .. .. Shinto Deities 神道の神様


. - - - kami 神 Shinto deities - ABC-list - - - .


- - - - - The Gods of Japan and Haiku (kami to hotoke)


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quote
Shingō 神語
A "divine title" affixed to the name of a kami.
A wide variety of titles have come into use in accordance with the unique characteristics of kami, and as a result of historical changes in the way kami have been understood. In the ancient period, the title mikoto was used, while expressions such as myōjin ("shining kami"), daibosatsu (great bodhisattva), and gongen (avatar) came into use as a product of kami-buddha combinatory cults (shinbutsu shūgō). During the Edo period, the title reisha ("spirit shrine") was applied to the departed spirits of human beings.

The title mikoto, written variously with the characters 命 or 尊 was used in ancient classics such as Kojiki and Nihongi as a title of respect for both kami and noble persons. It is believed that mi represents an honorific prefix, while koto means "thing," "event," or "word"; together, the reading mikoto has been interpreted as referring to a "noble personage," "minister" or "medium" (mikotomochi), and "noble child" (miko; see mikogami).

Nihongi differentiates between the usage of characters 尊 and 命 for mikoto, stating that the earlier character is used to refer only to kami of the utmost dignity with direct linkage to the imperial descent, while the latter character is used for all other kami.

The title myōjin 明神 as applied to Japanese kami is believed to evolved from an earlier term myōjin 名神 ("eminent kami"), which was used in ancient works like Engishiki to refer to kami of particularly noteworthy power. Under the influence of the homophonic myōjin 明神 ("shining deity") found in Chinese and Buddhist texts, the latter character combination came to be applied to indigenous kami as well.

Daibosatsu is obviously a term of Buddhist origin, and refers to a "great kami that has awakened to the Way of the Bodhisattva." The title daibosatsu is first seen in 781, when the kami Hachiman was honored with the title Gokoku Reigen Iriki Jintsū Daibosatsu ("Great Bodhisattva of National Protection and Marvelous Spirit Power"). From that time, the title daibosatsu has been applied to numerous other kami, including Fuji Sengen Daibosatsu and Tado Daibosatsu.

Gongen (avatar) is likewise of Buddhist origin, a term deriving from the doctrine of honji suijaku ("original essence, manifest traces"). According to this belief, buddhas may provisionally manifest themselves in this world in the form of kami or deities indigenous to various locales. Some well-known kami bestowed with this title include Kumano Gongen, Kasuga Gongen, and Hakusan Gongen.

The title reisha originates with the Yuiitsu Shinto school of the Yoshida family, which first used the term to refer to a shrine erected over the grave of the school's founder. Mano Tokitsuna's Kokin shingaku ruihen describes reisha as "a general term referring to shrines devoted to the spirits of human beings," but the term was also later used as a title for the kami themselves. Within Yoshida Shintō, the titles reijin reisha and myōjin were all applied to deceased human spirits, and this usage influenced the use of the terms in other schools as well, including Yoshikawa Shintō and Suika Shintō, where they were applied to persons who had mastered the deepest imports of the religion. Some of these individuals included Yoshikawa Koretari, posthumously titled Miaredō Reisha, and Yamazaki Ansai, who was titled Suika Reisha.

Another unusual example of the attribution of shingō to humans is that of Sugawara Michizane, who was titled tenjin or "heavenly deity."
source : Sato Masato, Kokugakuin 2005


More details :
. shinbutsu 神仏 kami to hotoke .
shinbutsu shūgō 神仏習合 syncretism - shinbutsu bunri 神仏分離 separation


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CLICK to look at Japanese Buddha Statues


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My Books in German

Buddhistische Kultgegenstände Japans
by Gabi Greve
(Buddhist Ritual and Ceremonial Tools, butsugu, hoogu)


Ich widme dieses Buch, in grosser Dankbarkeit, einem grossen Sensei, Dietrich Seckel.
Okayama Pref., Japan 1996



Buddhastatuen ... Who is Who,
Ein Wegweiser zur Ikonografie von japanischen Buddhastatuen
by Gabi Greve
1994
(All about Japanese Buddhastatues)
With a Review by Dietrich Seckel


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The best ONLINE introduction !

THE FACE OF BUDDHISM &
SHINTOISM IN JAPANESE ART


! Mark Schumacher !
(I am contributing to this site too.)



Article:
Buddhism and Shinto
Michael Hofmann, March 2010


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Buddha Statues and Japanese Deities by
. Master Carver Enku 円空 .
[1632?~1695]



Shinto deities and haiku by
. Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 - Archives of the WKD .



The first visit or ceremony for a deity is often a KIGO!
. WKD : New Year Ceremonies





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12/29/2015

Fudo Myo-O Introduction

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Who is Fudo Myo-O, the Wisdom King ?

Fudō Myō-ō, Fudoo Myoo-Oo , Fudou Myou Ou 不動明王 Fudo Myo-O
Acala Vidyârâja - Vidyaraja

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- quote
Acala (Skr.: Acala, Achala अचल; "immovable" one)
is a guardian deity primarily revered in Vajrayana Buddhism in Japan, China and elsewhere.

He is classed among the vidyārāja and preeminent among the Five Wisdom Kings of the Womb Realm. Accordingly, his figure occupies an important hierarchical position in the pictorial diagramatic Mandala of the Two Realms. In Japan, Acala is revered in the Shingon, Tendai, Zen and Nichiren sects.



Overview
Descriptions of his physical appearance derive from such scriptural source as the Mahavairocana Tantra (Dainichikyō (『大日経』)) and its annotation.

His face is expressive of extreme wrath, wrinkle-browed,left eye squinted or looking askance, lower teeth biting down the upper lip. He has the physique of a corpulent (round-bellied) child. He bears a sword in his right hand, and a lariat or noose (kensaku (羂索)) in his left hand. He is engulfed in flame, and seated on a "huge rock base" (banjakuza (盤石座)).

Acala is said to be a powerful deity who protects All the Living (sattva, shujō (衆生)) by burning away all impediments (antar-aya, shōnan (障難)) and defilements, thus aiding them towards enlightenment.

In Japanese esoteric Buddhism, according to an arcane interpretive concept known as the "three wheel-embodiments(ja)" or san rinjin (三輪身) Acala and the rest of the five wisdom kings are considered kyōryō tenshin (教令輪身 "embodiments of the wheel of injunction"), or beings whose actions constitute the teaching of the law (the other embodiments teach by word, or merely by their manifest existence). Under this conceptualization, the wisdom kings are ranked superior to the Dharmapala (gohō zenshin (護法善神)), a different class of guardian deities. Nevertheless, this distinction sometimes fails to be asserted, or the two are openly treated as synonymous by many commentators, even in clearly Japanese religious contexts.

The Sanskrit symbol that represents Acala is hāṃ हां ( conventionally transliterated kān (kaan) (カーン)).
However, it has been confounded with the similar glyph (हूं hūṃ), prompting some commentators to mistakenly identify the Acala with other deities. (The Sanskrit symbol is called siddham, bonji (梵字)), or "seed syllable" (zh: bīja, Ja: shuji (種子)).

Some of the other transliterations and variants to his name are Ācalanātha, Āryācalanātha, Ācala-vidyā-rāja. The Hindu form of the deity may also be known as Caṇḍamahāroṣaṇa or Caṇḍaroṣaṇa "the violent-wrathful" one.

History
Originally the Hindu deity Acalanātha (अचलनाथ),
whose name in Sanskrit signifies ācala "immovable" + nātha' "protector, Acala was incorporated into esoteric Buddhism (late 7th century, India) as a servant of Buddha. In Tang Dynasty China, he became Budong (pinyin: Búdòng; Middle Chinese: /pǝw dungx/- 不動, "immovable"), a translated-meaning-name derived from Acala. In turn, the deity was imported into Japan as Fūdō (不動) "immovable") by the priest Kobo Daishi Kūkai (died 835) who was studying in China as a member of the Kentoshi mission, and founded the Shingon sect of Japanese Buddhism.

As the deity's importance waned in India and China (as did the religion itself), the iconic image remained popular throughout the Middle Ages (and into modern times) in Nepal, Tibet and Japan, where sculptural and pictorial representations of them are most often found. Much of the iconography comes from Japan, where a popular cult especially devoted to him has developed.

In Tibetan Buddhism and art, the buddha Akshobhya, whose name also means "the immovable one", presides over the clan of deities to which Ācala belongs. Other sources refer to the Acala/Caṇḍaroṣaṇa as an "emanation" of Akshobhya, suggesting further assimilation.

Acala in Japan
Fudō-myōō (不動明王) is the full Japanese name for Acala-vidyaraja, or Fudō (o-Fudō-sama etc.) for short. It is the literal translation of the Sanskrit term "immovable wisdom king".

Iconography
Acala in Buddhist art since the Heian era has depicted him as angry-faced, holding a vajra sword and a lariat. In later representations, such as those used by the yamabushi monks, he may have one fang pointing up and another pointing down, and a braid on the one side of his head.

The sword he holds may or may not be flaming and sometimes described only generically as a hōken (宝剣 "treasure sword") or as kongō-ken (金剛杵 "vajra sword"), which is descriptive of the fact that the pommel of the sword is in the shape of the talon-like kongō-sho (金剛杵 "vajra") of one type or another. It may also be referred to as sanko-ken (三鈷剣 "three-pronged vajra sword"). However in some cases as in the Akafudo painting, the divinity is seen holding the Kurikara-ken, a sword with the dragon coiled around it.

The flaming nimbus or halo behind the statue is known as the "karura flame", after a mythical firebreathing birdlike creature, the garuda.

The two boy servants who is usually depicted in attendance to Acala are named Kongara (Kiṃkara) and Seitaka (Ceṭaka) though there are said to be eight such boy servants altoghether, and as many as forty-eight servants overall.

His seat, the banjakuza (盤石座 or "huge rock base")   is considered an appropriate iconographic symbol to demonstrate the steadfastness of" the Fudō.

Acala/Fudo Cult
In Japan, Acala became an idol of worship in its own right, and became installed as the gohonzon (本尊) or main deity at temples and outdoor shrines. A famous example is the Narita Fudo, a Shingon subsect temple at Narita-san.

At Shingon Buddhist temples dedicated to Ācala, priests perform the Fudō-hō (不動法), or ritual service to enlist the deity's power of purification to benefit the faithful. This rite routinely involves the use of the ritual burning ceremony, fire ritual or goma (護摩) (Skr.: Homa) as a purification tool.

Lay persons or monks in yamabushi gear who go into rigorous training outdoors in the mountains also often pray to small Ācala statue or talisman they carry, which serve as his honzon. This praciticed path of yamabushi's training, known as Shugendō, predates the introduction of Ācala, so at first adored idols such as the Zaō Gongen who appeared before the sect's founder En no Ozunu or the Vairocana. But eventually Ācala was added to list of deities most typically enshrined by the yamabushi monks, either portable, or installed in outdoor shrines (hokora). These statues would be often placed near waterfalls (a common training ground) and deep in the mountains and in caves.

Ācala also tops the list of so-called Thirteen Buddhas (jūsan butsu (十三仏)). Thus Shingon sect mourners assign the Fudo the "First Seven Days" (Shonanoka (初七日)) of service. The first week is an important observance, but perhaps not as prominently important as the observance of "seven times seven days" (i.e. 49 days) signifying the end of "intermediate state" (bardo).

Literature on Shinto Buddhist ritual will explain that such and such Sanskrit "seed syllable", or mantra or mudra is attendant to each of the "buddhas" for each observance period. But the scholarly consensus seems to be that the invoking of the "Thirteen Buddhas" had evolved later around the 14th century and became widespread by the following century, so this could not have been part of the original teachings by priest Kukai, but rather a later adaptation.
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !


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- quote
Acala Vidyârâja
is one of the Vidyârâjas (Myôô) class of deities, and a very wrathful deity.

He is portrayed holding a sword in his right hand and a coiled rope in his left hand. With this sword of wisdom, Acala cuts through deluded and ignorant minds and with the rope he binds those who are ruled by their violent passions and emotions. He leads them onto the correct path of self control. Acala is also portrayed surrounded by flames, flames which consume the evil and the defilements of this world. He sits on a flat rock which symbolizes the unshakeable peace and bliss which he bestows to the minds and the bodies of his devotees.

Purpose and Vows
Acala transmits the teachings and the injunctions of Mahâvairocana to all living beings and whether they agree to accept or to reject these injunctions is up to them, Acala's blue/black body and fierce face symbolize the force of his will to draw all beings to follow the teachings of the Buddha. Nevertheless, Acala's nature is essentially one of compassion and he has vowed to be of service to all beings for eternity.

Acala also represents his aspect of service by having his hair knotted in the style of a servant: his hair is tied into seven knots and falls down from his head on the left side. Acala has two teeth protruding from out of his mouth, an upper tooth and a lower tooth. The upper tooth is pointed downward and this represents his bestowing unlimited compassion who are suffering in body and spirit. His lower tooth is pointed upward and this represents the strength of his desire to progress upward in his service for the Truth. In his upward search for Bodhi and in his downward concern for suffering beings, he represents the beginning of the religious quest, the awakening of the Bodhicitta and the beginning of his compassionate concern for others.
It is for this reason that the figure of Acala is placed first among
the thirteen deities (juusanbutsu 十三仏).

His vow is to do battle with evil with a powerful mind of compassion and to work for the protection of true happiness. To pray for recovery from illness and for safety while traveling is to rely upon his vow and power to save. Acala is also the guide for the deceased, to help save them and assist them in becoming buddhas for the first seven days after death.

Read more about these 13 deities.
http://www.shingon.org/deities/jusanbutsu/fudo.html

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The 19 characteristics of Fudo Myo-O
... ... ... The 19 Signs ... ... ...


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Firmly Rooted: On Fudo Myoo's Origins
by Richard K. Payne
- source : pdf file on facebook


Read more on this extensive page about Buddha Statues
... Mark Schumacher ...

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12/28/2015

19 Signs

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19 Characteristic Signs of Fudo Myo-O

不動十九観 / 不動十九相観

Fudoo Juukyuu Sansoo
Fudo Jukyu Sanso

Just as Buddha Shakyamuni has 32 characteristic signs, Fudo Myo-O has 19.
They are described in documents of the Tendai sect like the following:

1 He is an incarnation of Dainichi Nyorai.
2 His Mantra has the four letters : a ro kan man .
3 He usually lives in a world of fire.
4 He has the figure of a fat young man, rather unpleasant.
5 He has seven knots in his hair and a lotus blossom on top of them.

6 On his left shoulder a plait of hair hangs down.
7 The wrinkles on his forehead look like water waves.
8 The left eye is closed, the right one wide open. - eyes
9 He bites his right upper lip with the lower teeth and his left lip protrudes.
10 He has his mouth shut strictly.

11 He carries a three-pronged sword in his right hand.
12 He carries a rope in his left hand.
13 He eats the leftover food of ascetic monks.
14 He stands or sits on a throne of stone.
15 His body color is of an unpleasant black-blue-green.

16 His look is fierce and threatening.
17 He has a fiery Garuda bird on his halo.
18 A Kurikara Dragon is wrapped around his sword.
19 He has two child acolytes by his side.


05 - 06 . kami 髪 his hairstyle .
shichi shakei 七沙髻 / benpatsu 一弁髪

07 . suiha 水波相 wrinkles on his forehead .

08 . tenchigan 天地眼 "eyes of heaven and earth" .

09 . kiba 牙 the teeth of Fudo .

11 . gooma riken 降魔利剣 demon-subjugating sharp sword .

12 . kensaku, kenjaku 羂索 rope, lariat, noose .

14 . daiza 台座 seat, throne .

17 . koohai, kōhai 光背 mandorla, halo, Nimbus.

18 . Kurikara sword 倶利伽羅不動剣 .

19 . Sanjuuroku Dooji 三十六童子 36 Attendants .
Kongara 矜迦羅童子(こんがらどうじ)、
Seitaka 制迦童子(せいたかどうじ)

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天台僧 安然が、「不動立印儀軌修行次第」により不動明王を想い従うために唱えたもの

(1)大日如来の化身
(2)真言中に、ア・ロ・カン・マンの4字がある
(3)常に火生三昧(かしょうざんまい)に住んでいる
(4)肥満した童子の姿で、卑しい
(5)頭頂に七沙髻があり、蓮華をのせている

(6)左肩に一弁髪を垂らす benpatsu
(7)額に水波(すいは)のようなしわがある suiha
(8)左の目を閉じ右の目を開いている
(9)下の歯で右上の唇を噛み、左下の唇の外へ出している
(10)口を硬く閉じている

(11)右手に三鈷剣を持っている
(12)左手に羂索を持っている
(13)行者の残食を食べる
(14)大磐石の上に安座している
(15)色が醜く青黒

(16)奮迅して憤怒している
(17)光背に迦楼羅炎(かるらえん)がある
(18)倶力迦羅竜が剣にまとわりついている
(19)両脇に2童子が侍している
source : www.kyototsuu.jp



Buddha Shakyamuni
Signs of a Great Man 32 and 80

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10/27/2014

Meguro Legend

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- - - Meguro Legend
THE LOVES OF GOMPACHI AND KOMURASAKI



. Algernon Bertram Freeman-Mitford .  
- Tales of Old Japan (1871) -




. Meguro Fudo Temple 目黒不動 .  
- Introduction -

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source : en.wikipedia.org

Shirai Gonpachi, a Kabuki character based on Hirai Gonpachi
by Kunisada, 1852

Hirai Gonpachi 平井権八 and Komurasaki 小紫

- quote
THE LOVES OF GOMPACHI AND KOMURASAKI


Within two miles or so from Yedo, and yet well away from the toil and
din of the great city, stands the village of Meguro. Once past the
outskirts of the town, the road leading thither is bounded on either
side by woodlands rich in an endless variety of foliage, broken at
intervals by the long, low line of villages and hamlets. As we draw
near to Meguro, the scenery, becoming more and more rustic, increases
in beauty. Deep shady lanes, bordered by hedgerows as luxurious as any
in England, lead down to a valley of rice fields bright with the
emerald green of the young crops. To the right and to the left rise
knolls of fantastic shape, crowned with a profusion of Cryptomerias,
Scotch firs and other cone-bearing trees, and fringed with thickets of
feathery bamboos, bending their stems gracefully to the light summer
breeze. Wherever there is a spot shadier and pleasanter to look upon
than the rest, there may be seen the red portal of a shrine which the
simple piety of the country folk has raised to Inari Sama, the patron
god of farming, or to some other tutelary deity of the place.

At the eastern outlet of the valley a strip of blue sea bounds the horizon;
westward are the distant mountains. In the foreground, in front of a
farmhouse, snug-looking, with its roof of velvety-brown thatch, a
troop of sturdy urchins, suntanned and stark naked, are frisking in
the wildest gambols, all heedless of the scolding voice of the
withered old grandam who sits spinning and minding the house, while
her son and his wife are away toiling at some outdoor labour. Close at
our feet runs a stream of pure water, in which a group of countrymen
are washing the vegetables which they will presently shoulder and
carry off to sell by auction in the suburbs of Yedo. Not the least
beauty of the scene consists in the wondrous clearness of an
atmosphere so transparent that the most distant outlines are scarcely
dimmed, while the details of the nearer ground stand out in sharp,
bold relief, now lit by the rays of a vertical sun, now darkened under
the flying shadows thrown by the fleecy clouds which sail across the
sky. Under such a heaven, what painter could limn the lights and
shades which flit over the woods, the pride of Japan, whether in late
autumn, when the russets and yellows of our own trees are mixed with
the deep crimson glow of the maples, or in spring-time, when plum and
cherry trees and wild camellias--giants, fifty feet high--are in full
blossom?

All that we see is enchanting, but there is a strange stillness in the
groves; rarely does the song of a bird break the silence; indeed, I
know but one warbler whose note has any music in it, the _uguisu_, by
some enthusiasts called the Japanese nightingale--at best, a king in
the kingdom of the blind. The scarcity of animal life of all
descriptions, man and mosquitoes alone excepted, is a standing wonder
to the traveller; the sportsman must toil many a weary mile to get a
shot at boar, or deer, or pheasant; and the plough of the farmer and
the trap of the poacher, who works in and out of season, threaten to
exterminate all wild creatures; unless, indeed, the Government should,
as they threatened in the spring of 1869, put in force some adaptation
of European game-laws. But they are lukewarm in the matter; a little
hawking on a duck-pond satisfies the cravings of the modern Japanese
sportsman, who knows that, game-laws or no game-laws, the wild fowl
will never fail in winter; and the days are long past when my Lord the
Shogun used to ride forth with a mighty company to the wild places
about Mount Fuji, there camping out and hunting the boar, the deer,
and the wolf, believing that in so doing he was fostering a manly and
military spirit in the land.

There is one serious drawback to the enjoyment of the beauties of the
Japanese country, and that is the intolerable affront which is
continually offered to one's sense of smell; the whole of what should
form the sewerage of the city is carried out on the backs of men and
horses, to be thrown upon the fields; and, if you would avoid the
overpowering nuisance, you must walk handkerchief in hand, ready to
shut out the stench which assails you at every moment.

It would seem natural, while writing of the Japanese country, to say a
few words about the peasantry, their relation to the lord of the soil,
and their government. But these I must reserve for another place. At
present our dealings are with the pretty village of Meguro.

At the bottom of a little lane, close to the entrance of the village,
stands an old shrine of the Shinto (the form of hero-worship which
existed in Japan before the introduction of Confucianism or of
Buddhism), surrounded by lofty Cryptomerias. The trees around a Shinto
shrine are specially under the protection of the god to whom the altar
is dedicated; and, in connection with them, there is a kind of magic
still respected by the superstitious, which recalls the waxen dolls,
through the medium of which sorcerers of the middle ages in Europe,
and indeed those of ancient Greece, as Theocritus tells us, pretended
to kill the enemies of their clients. This is called _Ushi no toki
mairi,_ or "going to worship at the hour of the ox,"[9] and is
practised by jealous women who wish to be revenged upon their
faithless lovers.

[Footnote 9:
The Chinese, and the Japanese following them, divide the
day of twenty-four hours into twelve periods, each of which has a sign
something like the signs of the Zodiac:--
Midnight until two in the morning is represented by the rat.
2 a.m. " 4 a.m. " " ox.
4 a.m. " 6 a.m. " " tiger.
6 a.m. " 8 a.m. " " hare.
8 a.m. " 10 a.m. " " dragon.
10 a.m. " 12 noon " " snake.
12 noon " 2 p.m. " " horse.
2 p.m. " 4 p.m. " " ram.
4 p.m. " 6 p.m. " " ape.
6 p.m. " 8 p.m. " " cock.
8 p.m. " 10 p.m. " " hog.
10 p.m. " Midnight " " fox.]

When the world is at rest, at two in the morning, the hour of which
the ox is the symbol, the woman rises; she dons a white robe and high
sandals or clogs; her coif is a metal tripod, in which are thrust
three lighted candles; around her neck she hangs a mirror, which falls
upon her bosom; in her left hand she carries a small straw figure, the
effigy of the lover who has abandoned her, and in her right she grasps
a hammer and nails, with which she fastens the figure to one of the
sacred trees that surround the shrine. There she prays for the death
of the traitor, vowing that, if her petition be heard, she will
herself pull out the nails which now offend the god by wounding the
mystic tree. Night after night she comes to the shrine, and each night
she strikes in two or more nails, believing that every nail will
shorten her lover's life, for the god, to save his tree, will surely
strike him dead.

Meguro is one of the many places round Yedo to which the good citizens
flock for purposes convivial or religious, or both; hence it is that,
cheek by jowl with the old shrines and temples, you will find many a
pretty tea-house, standing at the rival doors of which Mesdemoiselles
Sugar, Wave of the Sea, Flower, Seashore, and Chrysanthemum are
pressing in their invitations to you to enter and rest. Not beautiful
these damsels, if judged by our standard, but the charm of Japanese
women lies in their manner and dainty little ways, and the tea-house
girl, being a professional decoy-duck, is an adept in the art of
flirting,--_en tout bien tout honneur_, be it remembered; for she is
not to be confounded with the frail beauties of the Yoshiwara, nor
even with her sisterhood near the ports open to foreigners, and to
their corrupting influence. For, strange as it seems, our contact all
over the East has an evil effect upon the natives.

In one of the tea-houses a thriving trade is carried on in the sale of
wooden tablets, some six inches square, adorned with the picture of a
pink cuttlefish on a bright blue ground. These are ex-votos, destined
to be offered up at the Temple of Yakushi Niurai, the Buddhist
Aesculapius, which stands opposite, and concerning the foundation of
which the following legend is told.

In the days of old there was a priest called Jikaku, who at the age of
forty years, it being the autumn of the tenth year of the period
called Tencho (A.D. 833), was suffering from disease of the eyes,
which had attacked him three years before. In order to be healed from
this disease he carved a figure of Yakushi Niurai, to which he used
to offer up his prayers. Five years later he went to China, taking
with him the figure as his guardian saint, and at a place called
Kairetsu it protected him from robbers and wild beasts and from other
calamities. There he passed his time in studying the sacred laws both
hidden and revealed, and after nine years set sail to return to Japan.
When he was on the high seas a storm arose, and a great fish attacked
and tried to swamp the ship, so that the rudder and mast were broken,
and the nearest shore being that of a land inhabited by devils, to
retreat or to advance was equally dangerous. Then the holy man prayed
to the patron saint whose image he carried, and as he prayed, behold
the true Yakushi Niurai appeared in the centre of the ship, and said
to him--

"Verily, thou hast travelled far that the sacred laws might be
revealed for the salvation of many men; now, therefore, take my image,
which thou carriest in thy bosom, and cast it into the sea, that the
wind may abate, and that thou mayest be delivered from this land of
devils."

The commands of the saints must be obeyed, so with tears in his eyes,
the priest threw into the sea the sacred image which he loved. Then
did the wind abate, and the waves were stilled, and the ship went on
her course as though she were being drawn by unseen hands until she
reached a safe haven. In the tenth month of the same year the priest
again set sail, trusting to the power of his patron saint, and reached
the harbour of Tsukushi without mishap. For three years he prayed that
the image which he had cast away might be restored to him, until at
last one night he was warned in a dream that on the sea-shore at
Matsura Yakushi Niurai would appear to him. In consequence of this
dream he went to the province of Hizen, and landed on the sea-shore at
Hirato, where, in the midst of a blaze of light, the image which he
had carved appeared to him twice, riding on the back of a cuttlefish.
Thus was the image restored to the world by a miracle. In
commemoration of his recovery from the disease of the eyes and of his
preservation from the dangers of the sea, that these things might be
known to all posterity, the priest established the worship of Tako
Yakushi Niurai ("Yakushi Niurai of the Cuttlefish") and came to

Meguro, where he built the Temple of Fudo Sama,[10]
another Buddhist divinity. At this time there was an epidemic of small-pox in the village, so that men fell down and died in the street, and the holy
man prayed to Fudo Sama that the plague might be stayed.
Then the god appeared to him, and said--

"The saint Yakushi Niurai of the Cuttlefish, whose image thou
carriest, desires to have his place in this village, and he will heal
this plague. Thou shalt, therefore, raise a temple to him here that
not only this small-pox, but other diseases for future generations,
may be cured by his power."

[Footnote 10:
Fudo, literally "the motionless": Buddha in the state

called Nirvana.]

Hearing this, the priest shed tears of gratitude, and having chosen a
piece of fine wood, carved a large figure of his patron saint of the
cuttlefish, and placed the smaller image inside of the larger, and
laid it up in this temple, to which people still flock that they may
be healed of their diseases.

Such is the story of the miracle, translated from a small ill-printed
pamphlet sold by the priests of the temple, all the decorations of
which, even to a bronze lantern in the middle of the yard, are in the
form of a cuttlefish, the sacred emblem of the place.

What pleasanter lounge in which to while away a hot day could a man
wish for than the shade of the trees borne by the hill on which stands
the Temple of Fudo Sama? Two jets of pure water springing from the
rock are voided by spouts carved in the shape of dragons into a stone
basin enclosed by rails, within which it is written that "no woman may
enter." If you are in luck, you may cool yourself by watching some
devotee, naked save his loin-cloth, performing the ceremony called
_Suigiyo_; that is to say, praying under the waterfall that his soul
may be purified through his body. In winter it requires no small pluck
to go through this penance, yet I have seen a penitent submit to it
for more than a quarter of an hour on a bitterly cold day in January.
In summer, on the other hand, the religious exercise called
_Hiyakudo_, or "the hundred times," which may also be seen here to
advantage, is no small trial of patience. It consists in walking
backwards and forwards a hundred times between two points within the
sacred precincts, repeating a prayer each time.

The count is kept either upon the fingers or
by depositing a length of twisted straw each time that the goal is reached;
at this temple the place allotted for the ceremony is between
a grotesque bronze figure of Tengu Sama
("the Dog of Heaven"), the terror of children, a most hideous monster
with a gigantic nose, which it is beneficial to rub with a finger
afterwards to be applied to one's own nose, and a large brown box
inscribed with the characters _Hiyaku Do_ in high relief, which may
generally be seen full of straw tallies. It is no sinecure to be a
good Buddhist, for the gods are not lightly to be propitiated. Prayer
and fasting, mortification of the flesh, abstinence from wine, from
women, and from favourite dishes, are the only passports to rising in
office, prosperity in trade, recovery from sickness, or a happy
marriage with a beloved maiden. Nor will mere faith without works be
efficient. A votive tablet of proportionate value to the favour prayed
for, or a sum of money for the repairs of the shrine or temple, is
necessary to win the favour of the gods. Poorer persons will cut off
the queue of their hair and offer that up; and at Horinouchi, a temple
in great renown some eight or nine miles from Yedo, there is a rope
about two inches and a half in diameter and about six fathoms long,
entirely made of human hair so given to the gods; it lies coiled up,
dirty, moth-eaten, and uncared for, at one end of a long shed full of
tablets and pictures, by the side of a rude native fire-engine. The
taking of life being displeasing to Buddha, outside many of the
temples old women and children earn a livelihood by selling sparrows,
small eels, carp, and tortoises, which the worshipper sets free in
honour of the deity, within whose territory cocks and hens and doves,
tame and unharmed, perch on every jutty, frieze, buttress, and coigne
of vantage.

But of all the marvellous customs that I wot of in connection with
Japanese religious exercises, none appears to me so strange as that of
spitting at the images of the gods, more especially at the statues of
the Ni-o, the two huge red or red and green statues which, like Gog
and Magog, emblems of strength, stand as guardians of the chief
Buddhist temples. The figures are protected by a network of iron wire,
through which the votaries, praying the while, spit pieces of paper,
which they had chewed up into a pulp. If the pellet sticks to the
statue, the omen is favourable; if it falls, the prayer is not
accepted. The inside of the great bell at the Tycoon's burial-ground,
and almost every holy statue throughout the country, are all covered
with these outspittings from pious mouths.[11]

[Footnote 11:
It will be readily understood that the customs and
ceremonies to which I have alluded belong only to the gross
superstitions with which ignorance has overlaid that pure Buddhism of
which Professor Max Mueller has pointed out the very real beauties.]



[- THE TOMB OF THE SHIYOKU.]

Through all this discourse about temples and tea-houses, I am coming
by degrees to the goal of our pilgrimage--two old stones, mouldering
away in a rank, overgrown graveyard hard by, an old old
burying-ground, forgotten by all save those who love to dig out the
tales of the past. The key is kept by a ghoulish old dame, almost as
time-worn and mildewed as the tomb over which she watches. Obedient to
our call, and looking forward to a fee ten times greater than any
native would give her, she hobbles out, and, opening the gate, points
out the stone bearing the inscription, the "Tomb of the Shiyoku"
(fabulous birds, which, living one within the other--a mysterious
duality contained in one body--are the emblem of connubial love and
fidelity). By this stone stands another, graven with a longer legend,
which runs as follows:--

"In the old days of Genroku, she pined for the beauty of her lover,
who was as fair to look upon as the flowers; and now beneath the moss
of this old tombstone all has perished of her save her name. Amid the
changes of a fitful world, this tomb is decaying under the dew and
rain; gradually crumbling beneath its own dust, its outline alone
remains. Stranger! bestow an alms to preserve this stone; and we,
sparing neither pain nor labour, will second you with all our hearts.
Erecting it again, let us preserve it from decay for future
generations, and let us write the following verse upon it:--'These two
birds, beautiful as the cherry-blossoms, perished before their time,
like flowers broken down by the wind before they have borne seed.'"

Under the first stone is the dust of Gompachi, robber and murderer,
mixed with that of his true love Komurasaki, who lies buried with him.
Her sorrows and constancy have hallowed the place, and pious people
still come to burn incense and lay flowers before the grave. How she
loved him even in death may be seen from the following old-world
story.



source : 8000stalks.wordpress.com
Shirai Gonpachi

* * * * *

About two hundred and thirty years ago there lived in the service of a
daimio of the province of Inaba a young man, called Shirai Gompachi,
who, when he was but sixteen years of age, had already won a name for
his personal beauty and valour, and for his skill in the use of arms.
Now it happened that one day a dog belonging to him fought with
another dog belonging to a fellow-clansman, and the two masters, being
both passionate youths, disputing as to whose dog had had the best of
the fight, quarrelled and came to blows, and Gompachi slew his
adversary; and in consequence of this he was obliged to flee from his
country, and make his escape to Yedo.

And so Gompachi set out on his travels.

One night, weary and footsore, he entered what appeared to him to be a
roadside inn, ordered some refreshment, and went to bed, little
thinking of the danger that menaced him: for as luck would have it,
this inn turned out to be the trysting-place of a gang of robbers,
into whose clutches he had thus unwittingly fallen. To be sure,
Gompachi's purse was but scantily furnished, but his sword and dirk
were worth some three hundred ounces of silver, and upon these the
robbers (of whom there were ten) had cast envious eyes, and had
determined to kill the owner for their sake; but he, all unsuspicious,
slept on in fancied security.

In the middle of the night he was startled from his deep slumbers by
some one stealthily opening the sliding door which led into his room,
and rousing himself with an effort, he beheld a beautiful young girl,
fifteen years of age, who, making signs to him not to stir, came up to
his bedside, and said to him in a whisper--

"Sir, the master of this house is the chief of a gang of robbers, who
have been plotting to murder you this night for the sake of your
clothes and your sword. As for me, I am the daughter of a rich
merchant in Mikawa: last year the robbers came to our house, and
carried off my father's treasure and myself. I pray you, sir, take me
with you, and let us fly from this dreadful place."

She wept as she spoke, and Gompachi was at first too much startled to
answer; but being a youth of high courage and a cunning fencer to
boot, he soon recovered his presence of mind, and determined to kill
the robbers, and to deliver the girl out of their hands. So he
replied--

"Since you say so, I will kill these thieves, and rescue you this very
night; only do you, when I begin the fight, run outside the house,
that you may be out of harm's way, and remain in hiding until I join
you."

Upon this understanding the maiden left him, and went her way. But he
lay awake, holding his breath and watching; and when the thieves crept
noiselessly into the room, where they supposed him to be fast asleep,
he cut down the first man that entered, and stretched him dead at his
feet. The other nine, seeing this, laid about them with their drawn
swords, but Gompachi, fighting with desperation, mastered them at
last, and slew them. After thus ridding himself of his enemies, he
went outside the house and called to the girl, who came running to his
side, and joyfully travelled on with him to Mikawa, where her father
dwelt; and when they reached Mikawa, he took the maiden to the old
man's house, and told him how, when he had fallen among thieves, his
daughter had come to him in his hour of peril, and saved him out of
her great pity; and how he, in return, rescuing her from her
servitude, had brought her back to her home.
When the old folks saw their daughter whom they had lost
restored to them, they were beside themselves with joy, and shed tears for very happiness; and, in their gratitude, they pressed Gompachi to remain with them, and they prepared feasts for him, and entertained him hospitably: but their daughter, who had fallen in love with him for his beauty and knightly valour, spent her days in thinking of him, and of him alone.
The young man, however, in spite of the kindness of the old merchant, who
wished to adopt him as his son, and tried hard to persuade him to
consent to this, was fretting to go to Yedo and take service as an
officer in the household of some noble lord; so he resisted the
entreaties of the father and the soft speeches of the daughter, and
made ready to start on his journey; and the old merchant, seeing that
he would not be turned from his purpose, gave him a parting gift of
two hundred ounces of silver, and sorrowfully bade him farewell.

[Illustration: GOMPACHI AWAKENED BY THE MAIDEN IN THE ROBBERS' DEN.]

But alas for the grief of the maiden, who sat sobbing her heart out
and mourning over her lover's departure! He, all the while thinking
more of ambition than of love, went to her and comforted her, and
said: "Dry your eyes, sweetheart, and weep no more, for I shall soon
come back to you. Do you, in the meanwhile, be faithful and true to
me, and tend your parents with filial piety."

So she wiped away her tears and smiled again, when she heard him
promise that he would soon return to her. And Gompachi went his way,
and in due time came near to Yedo.

But his dangers were not yet over; for late one night, arriving at a
place called Suzugamori, in the neighbourhood of Yedo, he fell in with
six highwaymen, who attacked him, thinking to make short work of
killing and robbing him. Nothing daunted, he drew his sword, and
dispatched two out of the six; but, being weary and worn out with his
long journey, he was sorely pressed, and the struggle was going hard
with him, when a wardsman,[12] who happened to pass that way riding in
a chair, seeing the affray, jumped down from his chair and drawing his
dirk came to the rescue, and between them they put the robbers to
flight.

[Footnote 12: Japanese cities are divided into wards, and every
tradesman and artisan is under the authority of the chief of the ward
in which he resides. The word _chonin_, or wardsman, is generally used
in contradistinction to the word _samurai_, which has already been
explained as denoting a man belonging to the military class.]

Now it turned out that this kind tradesman, who had so happily come to
the assistance of Gompachi, was no other than Chobei of Bandzuin , the
chief of the _Otokodate_, or Friendly Society of the wardsmen of
Yedo--a man famous in the annals of the city, whose life, exploits,
and adventures are recited to this day, and form the subject of
another tale.

- - - 幡随院長兵衛 Banzuin Chobei - (1622–1657)

When the highwaymen had disappeared, Gompachi, turning to his
deliverer, said--

"I know not who you may be, sir, but I have to thank you for rescuing
me from a great danger."

And as he proceeded to express his gratitude, Chobei replied--

"I am but a poor wardsman, a humble man in my way, sir; and if the
robbers ran away, it was more by good luck than owing to any merit of
mine. But I am filled with admiration at the way you fought; you
displayed a courage and a skill that were beyond your years, sir."

"Indeed," said the young man, smiling with pleasure at hearing
himself praised; "I am still young and inexperienced, and am quite
ashamed of my bungling style of fencing."

"And now may I ask you, sir, whither you are bound?"

"That is almost more than I know myself, for I am a _ronin,_ and have
no fixed purpose in view."

"That is a bad job," said Chobei, who felt pity for the lad. "However,
if you will excuse my boldness in making such an offer, being but a
wardsman, until you shall have taken service I would fain place my
poor house at your disposal."

Gompachi accepted the offer of his new but trusty friend with thanks;
so Chobei led him to his house, where he lodged him and hospitably
entertained him for some months. And now Gompachi, being idle and
having nothing to care for, fell into bad ways, and began to lead a
dissolute life, thinking of nothing but gratifying his whims and
passions; he took to frequenting the Yoshiwara, the quarter of the
town which is set aside for tea-houses and other haunts of wild young
men, where his handsome face and figure attracted attention, and soon
made him a great favourite with all the beauties of the neighbourhood.


source : ukiyo-e.org
「白井権八 岩井紫若」「三浦屋小紫 市川新車」
Gonpachi and Komurasaki
by Utagawa Kunisada II

About this time men began to speak loud in praise of the charms of
Komurasaki, or "Little Purple," a young girl who had recently come to
the Yoshiwara, and who in beauty and accomplishments outshone all her
rivals. Gompachi, like the rest of the world, heard so much of her
fame that he determined to go to the house where she dwelt, at the
sign of "The Three Sea-coasts," and judge for himself whether she
deserved all that men said of her. Accordingly he set out one day, and
having arrived at "The Three Sea-coasts," asked to see Komurasaki; and
being shown into the room where she was sitting, advanced towards her;
but when their eyes met, they both started back with a cry of
astonishment, for this Komurasaki, the famous beauty of the Yoshiwara,
proved to be the very girl whom several months before Gompachi had
rescued from the robbers' den, and restored to her parents in Mikawa.
He had left her in prosperity and affluence, the darling child of a
rich father, when they had exchanged vows of love and fidelity; and
now they met in a common stew in Yedo. What a change! what a contrast!
How had the riches turned to rust, the vows to lies!

"What is this?" cried Gompachi, when he had recovered from his
surprise. "How is it that I find you here pursuing this vile calling,
in the Yoshiwara? Pray explain this to me, for there is some mystery
beneath all this which I do not understand."

But Komurasaki-- who, having thus unexpectedly fallen in with her lover
that she had yearned for, was divided between joy and shame-- answered,
weeping--

"Alas! my tale is a sad one, and would be long to tell. After you left
us last year, calamity and reverses fell upon our house; and when my
parents became poverty-stricken, I was at my wits' end to know how to
support them: so I sold this wretched body of mine to the master of
this house, and sent the money to my father and mother; but, in spite
of this, troubles and misfortunes multiplied upon them, and now, at
last, they have died of misery and grief. And, oh! lives there in this
wide world so unhappy a wretch as I! But now that I have met you
again--you who are so strong--help me who am weak. You saved me
once--do not, I implore you, desert me now!!" and as she told her
piteous tale the tears streamed from her eyes.

"This is, indeed, a sad story," replied Gompachi, much affected by the
recital. "There must have been a wonderful run of bad luck to bring
such misfortune upon your house, which but a little while ago I
recollect so prosperous. However, mourn no more, for I will not
forsake you. It is true that I am too poor to redeem you from your
servitude, but at any rate I will contrive so that you shall be
tormented no more. Love me, therefore, and put your trust in me." When
she heard him speak so kindly she was comforted, and wept no more, but
poured out her whole heart to him, and forgot her past sorrows in the
great joy of meeting him again.

When it became time for them to separate, he embraced her tenderly and
returned to Chobei's house; but he could not banish Komurasaki from
his mind, and all day long he thought of her alone; and so it came
about that he went daily to the Yoshiwara to see her, and if any
accident detained him, she, missing the accustomed visit, would become
anxious and write to him to inquire the cause of his absence. At last,
pursuing this course of life, his stock of money ran short, and as,
being a _ronin_ and without any fixed employment, he had no means of
renewing his supplies, he was ashamed of showing himself penniless at
"The Three Sea-coasts." Then it was that a wicked spirit arose within
him, and he went out and murdered a man, and having robbed him of his
money carried it to the Yoshiwara.

From bad to worse is an easy step, and the tiger that has once tasted
blood is dangerous. Blinded and infatuated by his excessive love,
Gompachi kept on slaying and robbing, so that, while his outer man was
fair to look upon, the heart within him was that of a hideous devil.
At last his friend Chobei could no longer endure the sight of him, and
turned him out of his house; and as, sooner or later, virtue and vice
meet with their reward, it came to pass that Gompachi's crimes became
notorious, and the Government having set spies upon his track, he was
caught red-handed and arrested; and his evil deeds having been fully
proved against him, he was carried off to the execution ground at
Suzugamori, the "Bell Grove," and beheaded as a common male-factor.

Now when Gompachi was dead, Chobei's old affection for the young man
returned, and, being a kind and pious man, he went and claimed his
body and head, and buried him at Meguro, in the grounds of the Temple
called Boronji.

When Komurasaki heard the people at Yoshiwara gossiping about her
lover's end, her grief knew no bounds, so she fled secretly from "The
Three Sea-coasts," and came to Meguro and threw herself upon the
newly-made grave. Long she prayed and bitterly she wept over the tomb
of him whom, with all his faults, she had loved so well, and then,
drawing a dagger from her girdle, she plunged it in her breast and
died. The priests of the temple, when they saw what had happened,
wondered greatly and were astonished at the loving faithfulness of
this beautiful girl, and taking compassion on her, they laid her side
by side with Gompachi in one grave, and over the grave they placed a
stone which remains to this day, bearing the inscription "The Tomb of
the Shiyoku." And still the people of Yedo visit the place, and still
they praise the beauty of Gompachi and the filial piety and fidelity
of Komurasaki.

Let us linger for a moment longer in the old graveyard. The word which
I have translated a few lines above as "loving faithfulness" means
literally "chastity." When Komurasaki sold herself to supply the wants
of her ruined parents, she was not, according to her lights,
forfeiting her claim to virtue. On the contrary, she could perform no
greater act of filial piety, and, so far from incurring reproach among
her people, her self-sacrifice would be worthy of all praise in their
eyes. This idea has led to grave misunderstanding abroad, and indeed
no phase of Japanese life has been so misrepresented as this. I have
heard it stated, and seen it printed, that it is no disgrace for a
respectable Japanese to sell his daughter, that men of position and
family often choose their wives from such places as "The Three
Sea-coasts," and that up to the time of her marriage the conduct of a
young girl is a matter of no importance whatever. Nothing could be
more unjust or more untrue. It is only the neediest people that sell
their children to be waitresses, singers, or prostitutes. It does
occasionally happen that the daughter of a _Samurai_, or gentleman, is
found in a house of ill-fame, but such a case could only occur at the
death or utter ruin of the parents, and an official investigation of
the matter has proved it to be so exceptional, that the presence of a
young lady in such a place is an enormous attraction, her superior
education and accomplishments shedding a lustre over the house. As for
gentlemen marrying women of bad character, are not such things known
in Europe? Do ladies of the _demi-monde_ never make good marriages?
_Mesalliances_ are far rarer in Japan than with us. Certainly among
the lowest class of the population such, marriages may occasionally
occur, for it often happens that a woman can lay by a tempting dowry
out of her wretched earnings-, but amongst the gentry of the country
they are unknown.

And yet a girl is not disgraced if for her parents' sake she sells
herself to a life of misery so great, that, when a Japanese enters a
house of ill-fame, he is forced to leave his sword and dirk at the
door for two reasons--first, to prevent brawling; secondly, because it
is known that some of the women inside so loathe their existence that
they would put an end to it, could they get hold of a weapon.

It is a curious fact that in all the Daimio's castle-towns, with the
exception of some which are also seaports, open prostitution is
strictly forbidden, although, if report speaks truly, public morality
rather suffers than gains by the prohibition.

The misapprehension which exists upon the subject of prostitution in
Japan may be accounted for by the fact that foreign writers, basing
their judgment upon the vice of the open ports, have not hesitated to
pronounce the Japanese women unchaste. As fairly might a Japanese,
writing about England, argue from the street-walkers of Portsmouth or
Plymouth to the wives, sisters, and daughters of these very authors.
In some respects the gulf fixed between virtue and vice in Japan is
even greater than in England. The Eastern courtesan is confined to a
certain quarter of the town, and distinguished by a peculiarly gaudy
costume, and by a head-dress which consists of a forest of light
tortoiseshell hair-pins, stuck round her head like a saint's glory--a
glory of shame which a modest woman would sooner die than wear. Vice
jostling virtue in the public places; virtue imitating the fashions
set by vice, and buying trinkets or furniture at the sale of vice's
effects--these are social phenomena which the East knows not.

The custom prevalent among the lower orders of bathing in public
bath-houses without distinction of the sexes, is another circumstance
which has tended to spread abroad very false notions upon the subject
of the chastity of the Japanese women. Every traveller is shocked by
it, and every writer finds in it matter for a page of pungent
description. Yet it is only those who are so poor (and they must be
poor indeed) that they cannot afford a bath at home, who, at the end
of their day's work, go to the public bath-house to refresh themselves
before sitting down to their evening meal: having been used to the
scene from their childhood, they see no indelicacy in it; it is a
matter of course, and _honi soit qui mal y pense_: certainly there is
far less indecency and immorality resulting from this public bathing,
than from the promiscuous herding together of all sexes and ages which
disgraces our own lodging-houses in the great cities, and the hideous
hovels in which some of our labourers have to pass their lives; nor
can it be said that there is more confusion of sexes amongst the
lowest orders in Japan than in Europe. Speaking upon the subject once
with a Japanese gentleman, I observed that we considered it an act of
indecency for men and women to wash together. He shrugged his
shoulders as he answered, "But then Westerns have such prurient
minds." Some time ago, at the open port of Yokohama, the Government,
out of deference to the prejudices of foreigners, forbade the men and
women to bathe together, and no doubt this was the first step towards
putting down the practice altogether: as for women tubbing in the open
streets of Yedo, I have read of such things in books written by
foreigners; but during a residence of three years and a half, in which
time I crossed and recrossed every part of the great city at all hours
of the day, I never once saw such a sight. I believe myself that it
can only be seen at certain hot mineral springs in remote country
districts.

The best answer to the general charge of immorality which has been
brought against the Japanese women during their period of unmarried
life, lies in the fact that every man who can afford to do so keeps
the maidens of his family closely guarded in the strictest seclusion.
The daughter of poverty, indeed, must work and go abroad, but not a
man is allowed to approach the daughter of a gentleman; and she is
taught that if by accident any insult should be offered to her, the
knife which she carries at her girdle is meant for use, and not
merely as a badge of her rank. Not long ago a tragedy took place in
the house of one of the chief nobles in Yedo. One of My Lady's
tire-women, herself a damsel of gentle blood, and gifted with rare
beauty, had attracted the attention of a retainer in the palace, who
fell desperately in love with her. For a long time the strict rules of
decorum by which she was hedged in prevented him from declaring his
passion; but at last he contrived to gain access to her presence, and
so far forgot himself, that she, drawing her poniard, stabbed him in
the eye, so that he was carried off fainting, and presently died. The
girl's declaration, that the dead man had attempted to insult her, was
held to be sufficient justification of her deed, and, instead of being
blamed, she was praised and extolled for her valour and chastity. As
the affair had taken place within the four walls of a powerful noble,
there was no official investigation into the matter, with which the
authorities of the palace were competent to deal. The truth of this
story was vouched for by two or three persons whose word I have no
reason to doubt, and who had themselves been mixed up in it; I can
bear witness that it is in complete harmony with Japanese ideas; and
certainly it seems more just that Lucretia should kill Tarquin than
herself.

The better the Japanese people come to be known and understood, the
more, I am certain, will it be felt that a great injustice has been
done them in the sweeping attacks which have been made upon their
women. Writers are agreed, I believe, that their matrons are, as a
rule, without reproach. If their maidens are chaste, as I contend that
from very force of circumstances they cannot help being, what becomes
of all these charges of vice and immodesty? Do they not rather recoil
upon the accusers, who would appear to have studied the Japanese woman
only in the harlot of Yokohama?

Having said so much, I will now try to give some account of the famous
Yoshiwara[13] of Yedo, to which frequent allusion will have to be made
in the course of these tales.

[Footnote 13:
The name Yoshiwara, which is becoming generic for
"Flower Districts,"--_Anglice_, quarters occupied by brothels,--is
sometimes derived from the town Yoshiwara, in Sunshine, because it was
said that the women of that place furnished a large proportion of the
beauties of the Yedo Yoshiwara. The correct derivation is probably
that given below.]

At the end of the sixteenth century the courtesans of Yedo lived in
three special places: these were the street called Koji-machi, in
which dwelt the women who came from Kioto; the Kamakura Street, and a
spot opposite the great bridge, in which last two places lived women
brought from Suruga. Besides these there afterwards came women from
Fushimi and from Nara, who lodged scattered here and there throughout
the town. This appears to have scandalized a certain reformer, named
Shoji Jinyemon, who, in the year 1612, addressed a memorial to the
Government, petitioning that the women who lived in different parts of
the town should be collected in one "Flower Quarter." His petition was
granted in the year 1617, and he fixed upon a place called Fukiyacho,
which, on account of the quantities of rushes which grew there, was
named _Yoshi-Wara,_ or the rush-moor, a name which now-a-days, by a
play upon the word _yoshi,_ is written with two Chinese characters,
signifying the "good," or "lucky moor." The place was divided into
four streets, called the Yedo Street, the Second Yedo Street, the
Kioto Street, and the Second Kioto Street.

In the eighth month of the year 1655, when Yedo was beginning to
increase in size and importance, the Yoshiwara, preserving its name,
was transplanted bodily to the spot which it now occupies at the
northern end of the town. And the streets in it were named after the
places from which the greater number of their inhabitants originally
came, as the "Sakai Street," the "Fushimi Street," &c.

The official Guide to the Yoshiwara for 1869 gives a return of 153
brothels, containing 3,289 courtesans of all classes, from the
_Oiran_, or proud beauty, who, dressed up in gorgeous brocade of gold
and silver, with painted face and gilded lips, and with her teeth
fashionably blacked, has all the young bloods of Yedo at her feet,
down to the humble _Shinzo_, or white-toothed woman, who rots away her
life in the common stews. These figures do not, however, represent the
whole of the prostitution of Yedo; the Yoshiwara is the chief, but not
the only, abiding-place of the public women. At Fukagawa there is
another Flower District, built upon the same principle as the
Yoshiwara; while at Shinagawa, Shinjiku, Itabashi, Senji, and
Kadzukappara, the hotels contain women who, nominally only waitresses,
are in reality prostitutes. There are also women called _Jigoku-Omna,_
or hell-women, who, without being borne on the books of any brothel,
live in their own houses, and ply their trade in secret. On the whole,
I believe the amount of prostitution in Yedo to be wonderfully small,
considering the vast size of the city.

There are 394 tea-houses in the Yoshiwara, which are largely used as
places of assignation, and which on those occasions are paid, not by
the visitors frequenting them, but by the keepers of the brothels. It
is also the fashion to give dinners and drinking-parties at these
houses, for which the services of _Taikomochi_, or jesters, among whom
there are thirty-nine chief celebrities, and of singing and dancing
girls, are retained. The Guide to the Yoshiwara gives a list of
fifty-five famous singing-girls, besides a host of minor stars. These
women are not to be confounded with the courtesans. Their conduct is
very closely watched by their masters, and they always go out to
parties in couples or in bands, so that they may be a check upon one
another. Doubtless, however, in spite of all precautions, the shower
of gold does from time to time find its way to Danae's lap; and to be
the favoured lover of a fashionable singer or dancer is rather a
feather in the cap of a fast young Japanese gentleman. The fee paid to
singing-girls for performing during a space of two hours is one
shilling and fourpence each; for six hours the fee is quadrupled, and
it is customary to give the girls a _hana_, or present, for
themselves, besides their regular pay, which goes to the master of the
troupe to which they belong.

Courtesans, singing women, and dancers are bought by contractors,
either as children, when they are educated for their calling, or at a
more advanced age, when their accomplishments and charms render them
desirable investments. The engagement is never made life-long, for
once past the flower of their youth the poor creatures would be mere
burthens upon their masters; a courtesan is usually bought until she
shall have reached the age of twenty-seven, after which she becomes
her own property. Singers remain longer in harness, but even they
rarely work after the age of thirty, for Japanese women, like
Italians, age quickly, and have none of that intermediate stage
between youth and old age, which seems to be confined to countries
where there is a twilight.

Children destined to be trained as singers are usually bought when
they are five or six years old, a likely child fetching from about
thirty-five to fifty shillings; the purchaser undertakes the education
of his charge, and brings the little thing up as his own child. The
parents sign a paper absolving him from all responsibility in case of
sickness or accident; but they know that their child will be well
treated and cared for, the interests of the buyer being their material
guarantee. Girls of fifteen or upwards who are sufficiently
accomplished to join a company of singers fetch ten times the price
paid for children; for in their case there is no risk and no expense
of education.

Little children who are bought for purposes of prostitution at the age
of five or six years fetch about the same price as those that are
bought to be singers. During their novitiate they are employed to wait
upon the _Oiran_, or fashionable courtesans, in the capacity of little
female pages (_Kamuro_). They are mostly the children of distressed
persons, or orphans, whom their relatives cruelly sell rather than be
at the expense and trouble of bringing them up. Of the girls who enter
the profession later in life, some are orphans, who have no other
means of earning a livelihood; others sell their bodies out of filial
piety, that they may succour their sick or needy parents; others are
married women, who enter the Yoshiwara to supply the wants of their
husbands; and a very small proportion is recruited from girls who have
been seduced and abandoned, perhaps sold, by faithless lovers.

The time to see the Yoshiwara to the best advantage is just after
nightfall, when the lamps are lighted. Then it is that the women--who
for the last two hours have been engaged in gilding their lips and
painting their eyebrows black, and their throats and bosoms a snowy
white, carefully leaving three brown Van-dyke-collar points where the
back of the head joins the neck, in accordance with one of the
strictest rules of Japanese cosmetic science--leave the back rooms,
and take their places, side by side, in a kind of long narrow cage,
the wooden bars of which open on to the public thoroughfare. Here they
sit for hours, gorgeous in dresses of silk and gold and silver
embroidery, speechless and motionless as wax figures, until they shall
have attracted the attention of some of the passers-by, who begin to
throng the place. At Yokohama indeed, and at the other open ports, the
women of the Yoshiwara are loud in their invitations to visitors,
frequently relieving the monotony of their own language by some
blasphemous term of endearment picked up from British and American
seamen; but in the Flower District at Yedo, and wherever Japanese
customs are untainted, the utmost decorum prevails. Although the shape
which vice takes is ugly enough, still it has this merit, that it is
unobtrusive. Never need the pure be contaminated by contact with the
impure; he who goes to the Yoshiwara, goes there knowing full well
what he will find, but the virtuous man may live through his life
without having this kind of vice forced upon his sight. Here again do
the open ports contrast unfavourably with other places: Yokohama at
night is as leprous a place as the London Haymarket.[14]

[Footnote 14:
Those who are interested in this branch of social
science, will find much curious information upon the subject of
prostitution in Japan in a pamphlet published at Yokohama, by Dr.
Newton, R.N., a philanthropist who has been engaged for the last two
years in establishing a Lock Hospital at that place. In spite of much
opposition, from prejudice and ignorance, his labours have been
crowned by great success.]

A public woman or singer on entering her profession assumes a _nom de
guerre_, by which she is known until her engagement is at an end. Some
of these names are so pretty and quaint that I will take a few
specimens from the _Yoshiwara Saiken_, the guidebook upon which this
notice is based. "Little Pine," "Little Butterfly," "Brightness of the
Flowers," "The Jewel River," "Gold Mountain," "Pearl Harp," "The Stork
that lives a Thousand Years," "Village of Flowers," "Sea Beach," "The
Little Dragon," "Little Purple," "Silver," "Chrysanthemum,"
"Waterfall," "White Brightness," "Forest of Cherries,"--these and a
host of other quaint conceits are the one prettiness of a very foul
place.


- source : www.gutenberg.org

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. Yoshiwara 吉原 pleasure quarters in Edo . .


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